How many vultures are required and how long must they be present to create an infestation?

The Pennsylvania-based owner of a Maryland commercial building has learned that the answer, at least for insurance purposes, does not lie with an expert in bird behavior when that expert’s conclusions fly in the face of multiple eyewitness accounts, inspection reports, and dictionary definitions of infestation.

The property owner has lost its appeal of a denial of its claim for $300,000 for repairs to a roof damaged by turkey vultures.

Hanover American Insurance rightfully denied the claim in accordance with an exclusion in its policy for damage from nesting or an infestation by birds, a federal district c

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